Scientific achievements and developments


The fundamental and applied research most significant results of General Energy Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine obtained in 2022

General Energy Institute of NAS of Ukraine has developed the theoretical foundations of object-oriented identification of phenomena, processes, and objects, based on research of the information resource - the characteristics of noise fields that make up energy objects. For the first time in the world, the latest constructive models of noise signals of energy facilities, take into account retrospective and current information about the state of the facility and reflect its life cycle. The use of constructive models of noise signals opens up the possibility of analyzing the current state of the facility's energy supply, including monitoring emissions into the atmosphere and using this information to forecast its further functioning.It corresponds to the best world analogues and is used in the energy industry and in the control processes of man-made hazardous objects (Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine V.P. Babak, L.M. Shcherbak, S.I. Kovtun).

1. For the first time in the world, the expediency of using wind and solar power plants in conjunction with standby traditional power plants to cover the electrical load schedules of the power system has been theoretically justified and experimentally proven, which will increase their energy-economic indicators and the profitability of the Ukrainian energy market. With the use of digital modeling, it was established that without applying the proposed approach, the lost profits of the energy market of Ukraine amounted to about 3 billion US dollars in 2021. The expected additional profits of the energy market of Ukraine at the level of 2030, according to the estimates made, will amount to about 6 billion US dollars (Academicians of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine M.M. Kulyk, O.V. Zgurovets).

2. For the first time, a new method of diagnosing elements of complex energy objects has been developed, using deep learning algorithms of artificial neural networks, which opens the way to creating an effective, data-driven system for diagnosing energy equipment with the ability to process events that occurred thousands of discrete time steps ago, and remember to remember them, which in turn allows to increase the accuracy of forecasting reliability and estimating the residual resource of the equipment.  The practical value of the obtained results arises in the developed algorithm of the functioning of the computerized system for controlling the fuel combustion process with stepwise correction of the formation of the air-fuel mixture based on feedback signals from the oxygen sensor, which allows maintaining the coefficients of excess air in the output gases in the required parameters and achievements. formation of harmful emissions.The structure of the management and control system of the fuel combustion process is proposed, based on the production of a wide-band oxygen sensor and a frequency-regulated electric drive of the blower fan, which made it possible to ensure effective fuel combustion in boiler units by maintaining a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture with a reduction in the formation of harmful emissions, and to recommend its implementation in practice modernization of boiler units
(Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine V.P. Babak, S.I. Kovtun, A.O. Zaporozhets)

3. For the first time in Ukraine, a model of mathematical programming of the load of electric and thermal energy generating capacities is proposed, which simultaneously ensures the fulfillment of two production-consumption balances - electric and thermal energy in accordance with the consumption schedules of each day of the year and optimizes the use of electric heat generators that consume electric energy taking into account the schedule electric load and release thermal energy according to the needs of subscribers connected to the centralized heat supply system. This makes it possible to align electrical load schedules and avoid temporary shutdowns of thermal power plants at night, which significantly improves their operating conditions. The results were implemented in NEC "Ukrenergo" according to the economic agreement No. 1916 dated 28.09.2022 (S.V. Shulzhenko, O.I. Teslenko, T.P. Nechayeva, V.O. Darius).

4. For the first time in Ukraine, a software and information tool for forecasting the energy balance, which is resistant to growing restrictions on the completeness of information support, was created, which, thanks to the possibility of statistical and technological approaches to determining the coefficients of the Leontiev output-consumption matrix, allows determining the optimal volumes of energy supply of energy subsystems and objects . elements, separate production processes with different sources of supply, control the use of fuel and energy resources. The developed software and information tool is used to solve the problem of forming the "Annual Forecast Fuel and Energy Balance", which is developed by the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine (M.I. Kaplin, V.M. Makarov, T.R. Bilan).

5. For the first time in Ukraine, a new methodological approach has been developed for determining the forecast volumes of implementation at the regional level of heat pump stations in centralized heat supply systems, using which the composition and potential of a low source of heat supply is determined. Recommendations for the State Agency for Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Ukraine regarding directions and forecast volumes of use of heat pump installations in regional heat supply systems of Ukraine were submitted. The proposed methodical approach will make it possible for each region to locate the economically accessible energy potential of introducing heat pump stations during the period of military recovery of Ukraine (V.O. Derii, O.I. Teslenko).

6. A model of monitoring and identification of energy facilities is proposed, in which energy consumers are represented as a stochastic space-time environment of energy consumption, and the intensity of information parameters of air pollution in space and time - as an n-dimensional random field. The general hierarchical algorithm for monitoring air pollution by energy facilities with the definition of hierarchical levels of information forming information and analytical centers, and access to this information by different types of users, provides feedback with decision centers that affect the operation of control facilities. and regulation of certain air pollutants.This corresponds to the best world analogues and will be used in the process of monitoring facilities in the energy sector (Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine V.P. Babak, A.O. Zaporozhets)

7. For the first time in the world, based on the theory of fuzzy sets, a multi-level model of circulation-coherent service-dominant transformation of the structure of the hybrid energy system was developed, a system of corresponding levels was formed, and an organizational mechanism for the interaction of energy service market participants with the energy and fuel markets was proposed. The use of a multi-level model makes it possible to determine the structure and volumes of optimal energy resources in the process of transforming the energy system and directions for attracting cross-border aid. This corresponds to the world level and will be used in the transformation of the fuel and energy complex in the conditions of the country's recovery (Member-Corporator of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine O.V. Novoseltsev).


1. The price model and the model of price indices, which, unlike Leontiev’s price model and other well-known price models, were developed and comprehensively researched in the theory of inter-industry balance were built on fundamentally different foundations, namely, they were formed not on the balance of expenses, but on the balance of releases in sets of Input-Output (IO) mathematical tools. As a result, devoided the proposed new IO price models of methodological errors, which (errors) with realistic initial data for known IO price models reach tens of percent or even more (Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine M.M. Kulyk).

2. Mathematical models for the study of frequency and power regulation processes in combined energy systems (UTS), which include powerful wind (WPS) and solar (SPS) power plants, were designed and developed by introducing dependencies that describe the operation of high-speed generator-regulators of various types, including rechargeable batteries (AB). In the mathematical model, in contrast to the existing ones, new laws of frequency regulation in energy systems with wind turbines and SPPs have been developed and used. It has been established that the combination of two components in the law, namely, adaptive and proportional-differential-integral, provides qualitatively better results in ensuring frequency accuracy and stability of the control system. The optimal ratio between these components was found, which provides the maximum regulatory effect. In addition, an additional (interval) law of adaptive regulation was developed, which, in combination with other components, makes it possible to reduce the required power of regulating ABs by 20%. It has been experimentally proven that the involvement of AB and HPP to stabilize the operating modes of UTS with significant amounts of WPP and SPS capacities provides a stable frequency in the base zone of the electrical load schedule (GEN) that meets not only the standard for UTS of Ukraine (50 ± 0.2 Hz), but even exceeds the requirements of the UTS of the European Union ENTSO-E (50 ± 0.02 Hz). Moreover, according to the conducted studies, the complexes of WPP, SPP and AB, together with HPP, provide the possibility of stable frequency and capacity operation of OES not only in the basic, but even in the semi-peak and peak zones of the GEN. This significantly increases the competitiveness of the mentioned complexes

(Academicians of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine M.M. Kulyk, O.V. Zgurovets).

3. An important study was carried out regarding the impact of the law on the green tariff on the functioning of the UTS and the economy of Ukraine as a whole. It is shown that the preferences granted according to this law to the owners of WPPs and SPPs are higher than those ever granted in the European Union. The calculations show that the costs of electricity consumers for its production by wind and solar power plants with a total capacity of about 12 GW for one year will be an order of magnitude higher than the costs for a similar amount of energy that can be provided by traditional energy. At the same time, the difference in costs exceeds 3 billion dollars. USA, which is a loss for consumers. Such losses cannot be sustained by the Ukrainian electricity market, which is the only buyer of electricity from the owners of WPPs and SPPs. Even now, when the total installed capacity of wind power plants and thermal power stations is about 8 GW, the energy market of Ukraine cannot independently pay for the electricity of these power plants. NEC "Ukrenergo" issued permits for the construction of WPPs and SPPs with a total volume of about 18 GW. Therefore, their installed capacity of 12 GW will be reached in the next 1-2 years, and then the electricity market will go bankrupt, and the threat of default will become real for the Ukrainian economy. To prevent this phenomenon, it is necessary to urgently adopt changes to the law on the green tariff, and the first step should be the abolition of the archaic and binding principle "take or pay" in it

(Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine M.M. Kulyk).

4. For the first time, a mathematical programming model was developed with integer variables for determining the structure and scope of development of traditional and renewable energy in compliance with international environmental agreements and safety restrictions, which in its functionality corresponds to the best world analogues, some of which are currently used by operators of ENTSO-E transmission systems. Unlike analogues, the model takes into consideration the structure of Ukraine's generating capacities in more detail, their technical-economic and physical-technical indicators, and the established operating modes of power plants characteristic of Ukraine's UTS. The versatility of the algorithms implemented in the model allows is used for a wide range of research, in particular, on the optimization of load modes of generating capacities of the power system for the short-term perspective, the formation of electricity balances of Ukraine for the next year or the medium-term perspective, as a component of research on the development of strategic documents, for example, the Energy strategies of Ukraine until 2050 and others. With the use of the model, the structure of the generating capacity of the UTS of Ukraine until 2040 was formed, which ensures the preservation of the existing power units of nuclear power plants in operation, as well as the integration of about 18 GW of installed capacity of wind turbines and SPPs in compliance with the principles of balance reliability of the energy system (S.V. Shulzhenko).

5. For the first time, a mathematical model was developed for the optimization of the supply of coal products to the country's economy, which takes into consideration coal products not only for energy needs, but also for other consumers by types of economic activity and population. In contrast to the known models, the model combines detailed consideration of the technical and economic indicators of the technological equipment of mines and beneficiation plants with algorithms for coordinating flows of all types of coal products, which made it possible to forecast the structure of finished coal products with the provision of the necessary indicators of its quality in the technological chain "mine - beneficiation plant - consumer". With the application of the software implementation of the model, the forecast structure of coal production for the electric power industry and the overall balance of coal production in the economy of Ukraine were developed according to the scenarios of the development of the coal industry for the period until 2040, according to which the maximum coal production under the optimistic scenario, 61 million tons, will be achieved in 2035 , according to the basic and pessimistic - 46 million tons and 41 million tons, respectively, will be reached in 2030 (V.M. Makarov, M.I. Kaplin, M.O. Perov).

6. An improved method of determining the total energy intensity of products for multi-product production, which, unlike the existing one, includes several types of energy intensity at different hierarchical levels: direct - at the level of a technological unit or workshop; technological - at the level of the technological chain of production of products in a workshop or a group of workshops; full factory, which includes, in addition to the technological energy intensity, the energy intensity of the main production assets, labor costs, intra-factory transportation; the total energy intensity of products, which includes the energy intensity of extraction and transportation of raw materials to the enterprise to the full factory energy intensity. The method of determining the direct energy intensity of products has been improved with the addition of algorithms for determining the energy intensity of thermal and secondary energy resources of excess pressure and the introduction of the coefficient of distribution of joint energy costs in multi-product production. A new algorithm for determining the total energy intensity of labor costs has been developed, which, unlike the previous one, takes into consideration income items of the population, and the algorithm of the total energy intensity of the main production assets has also been improved. A project of changes and additions to DSTU 3682-98 "Energy conservation. Methodology for determining the total energy intensity of products, works and services". According to the improved methodology, indicators of the total energy intensity of products of ferrous metallurgy, coke chemistry, combined production of heat and electricity at thermal power plants, and primary oil processing until 2040 have been determined. The results of the work were considered at the meeting of TC 48 "Energozberezhenie" and it was recommended to include the completed work in the National Standardization Program for 2022 and submit it to the State Enterprise "UkrNDNC" (O.E. Malyarenko, V.V. Stanytsyna, G.O. Kuts).

7. In order to study the conditions for fulfilling the obligations that Ukraine undertook by joining the Global Initiative to Reduce Methane Emissions (to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030 from the 2020 level), forecasts of methane emissions from fuel industries were developed for the first time in Ukraine - energy complex until 2040. It was determined that in the coal industry, achieving the specified reduction in methane emissions is possible only if the capture and utilization of methane from coal mines is increased from the current 10.3% to 21–52% for various industry development scenarios. It was determined that in the gas industry, achieving the specified reduction of methane emissions by 2030 is possible only if not only the implementation of measures to reduce them, but also the development of national methods for estimating methane emissions and the use of national coefficients in the formation of the National Cadastre of anthropogenic emissions from sources and absorption by sinks of greenhouse gases (I.Ch. Leshchenko, T.P. Nechaeva, V.E. Shcherbina).

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